On November 1, 2018, the Canadian Digital Privacy Act came into effect.  The Act, passed on June 18, 2015, modified the data breach obligations for companies subject to the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (“PIPEDA”) by introducing three new requirements in the event of certain data breaches:  reporting to the Canadian Office of the Privacy Commissioner (“OPC”), notification to the affected individuals, and recordkeeping obligations.  Below, we discuss these requirements and recent guidance provided by the OPC, and explore some implications for companies subject to PIPEDA. Continue Reading New Mandatory Data Breach Reporting Requirements Become Effective for Companies Doing Business in Canada

On October 4, 2018, the Financial Markets Law Committee (“FMLC”) published a paper on the subject of “Data Protection: Issues of Legal Uncertainty Arising from the UK Data Protection Act 2018.”  Cleary Gottlieb contributed to this paper as a participant in the FMLC’s data protection working group.

The FMLC’s paper focuses on issues of legal uncertainty potentially hindering the continuation of the lawful flow of personal data between the UK, the European Economic Area and/or Third Countries (i.e., countries that are not Member States of the European Union) following Brexit, as well as on the framework and mechanics for supervision and enforcement of the data protection regimes post-Brexit. The FMLC’s paper also proposes solutions and/or mitigants to these uncertainties.

The FMLC is an educational charity that was established at (but is independent from) the Bank of England. Its stated role is to identify issues of legal uncertainty or misunderstanding, present and future, in the framework of the wholesale financial markets which might give rise to material risks and to consider how such issues should be addressed.

On October 15, 2018, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights (OCR) announced a $16 million settlement with Anthem, Inc. over alleged violations of federal privacy and security regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).  The settlement resolves an investigation following a data breach that exposed protected health information of nearly 79 million people.  According to OCR, the incident is the largest health data breach to date in the United States and Anthem’s payment similarly represents the largest HIPAA settlement to date.  The settlement is consistent with OCR’s recent focus on enforcing regulatory requirements to conduct an accurate and thorough risk analysis and maintain appropriate mechanisms to monitor systems that contain protected health information and to control access to that information. It also highlights the agency’s distinct cybersecurity remediation approach. Continue Reading The U.S. Department of Health And Human Services Settles With Anthem for Record $16M Over Alleged HIPAA Violations

The UK Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) has provided Facebook with a Notice of Intent to issue a monetary penalty against the social media platform for its lack of transparency and failure to maintain the security of its users’ personal data in relation to the Cambridge Analytica scandal. The ICO’s fine is the maximum possible under the Data Protection Act 1998 (the UK implementing legislation for the former EU data protection regime under the Data Protection Directive). Facebook will have the opportunity to make representations to the ICO before the ICO’s decision is finalised.

Continue Reading UK Data Protection Regulator Set to Levy Maximum Fine on Facebook in Cambridge Analytica Case

On the heels of the European Union’s implementation of the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) and public outcry over the Cambridge Analytica scandal, on June 28, 2018, California enacted the most comprehensive data privacy law to date in the United States. The California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (the “CCPA”) was hastily passed by the California legislature to secure the withdrawal of an even more far-reaching measure that had qualified for the November ballot. Legislative amendments to the law are expected before it goes into effect on January 1, 2020.

The CCPA requires covered businesses to comply with requirements that give California consumers broad rights to know what personal information has been collected about them, the sources for the information, the purpose of collecting it, and whether it is sold or otherwise disclosed to third parties. It also gives consumers the right to access personal information about them held by covered businesses, to require deletion of the information and/or to prevent its sale to third parties. Other key provisions limit the ability of a covered business to discriminate against consumers who exercise their rights under the statute by charging them higher prices or delivering lower quality products or services.  The rights provided under the CCPA are similar in many respects to those afforded EU residents under the GDPR, but there are distinctions in approach on some key issues.

Please click here to read the full alert memorandum.

On June 22, 2018, the United States Supreme Court decided Carpenter v. United States, in which it held that the government must generally obtain a search warrant supported by probable cause before acquiring more than seven days of historical cell-site location information (“CSLI”) from a service provider. Noting “the deeply revealing nature of CSLI, its depth, breadth, and comprehensive reach, and the inescapable and automatic nature of its collection,” the Court held that an individual “maintains a legitimate expectation of privacy in the record of his physical movements captured through CSLI” that warrants Fourth Amendment protection. While the Court sought to construe its decision narrowly, the reasoning of the majority and Justice Gorsuch in his dissent raise significant questions about whether and to what extent individuals may have a reasonable expectation of privacy or possessory interest in other sensitive personal data held by third parties beyond the CSLI at issue in Carpenter.

Please click here to read the full alert memorandum.

In response to pressure from advocacy group Californians for Consumer Privacy, on June 21, 2018, California lawmakers proposed a new law, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, which would significantly expand consumers’ rights over their data.  The proposed law would apply to entities that do business in California, collect consumers’ personal information or determine the purpose and means of processing such data, and satisfy at least one of the following: (i) have over $25 million in annual gross revenue, (ii) buy or receive, sell or share for commercial purposes, the personal information of 50,000 or more consumers, households or devices, or (iii) derive 50 percent or more of revenue from the sale of consumer personal information. Continue Reading California Introduces Bill Expanding Consumer Rights Over Data Privacy

In the aftermath of the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica data privacy controversy, Senators Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.) and Richard Blumenthal (D-Conn.) introduced a federal data privacy bill on April 10, 2018 titled the Customer Online Notification for Stopping Edge-provider Network Transgressions Act, or the CONSENT Act (the “Act”).  While the Act is unlikely to pass in the near term given the lack of a Republican sponsor, it reflects increasing attention to privacy concerns in the United States, including consideration by both federal and state legislatures of significantly more prescriptive privacy requirements. Continue Reading CONSENT Act: Proposed Legislation a Sign of Potential U.S. Consent to Greater Privacy Protections?

Over recent months, numerous state regulators, including in Massachusetts, Texas, and New Jersey, have been exercising greater oversight of cryptocurrency businesses.[1]  On April 17, 2018, the office of the New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman (“NYAG”) launched the Virtual Markets Integrity Initiative, which will seek information from various platforms that trade cryptocurrencies to better protect consumers.  The initiative responds to concerns that cryptocurrency trading platforms may not provide consumers with the same information available from traditional exchanges.  As part of the initiative, the NYAG’s Investor Protection Bureau sent thirteen major cryptocurrency trading platforms questionnaires relating to internal policies, controls, and best practices.  The Bureau intends to consolidate and disseminate to consumers the information it receives. Continue Reading New York Attorney General Becomes Most Recent State Regulator To Foray Into Cryptocurrency Oversight

Earlier this week, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (Hon. James Donato) held in Patel v. Facebook Inc.,[1] that plaintiffs had standing to pursue a putative data privacy class action against Facebook alleging that the company had “collected users’ biometric data secretly and without consent.”[2]  The decision is the latest to weigh in on the injury allegations necessary for standing purposes under the Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act[3] (“BIPA”), which regulates the collection and storage of biometric information, and provides a private right of action to a “person aggrieved by a violation.”  In finding that standing was met, the Facebook decision arguably applied a lower injury threshold than other courts have interpreted to be the outer boundaries for pleading an Article III injury under BIPA.  Continue Reading Data Privacy Class Action Against Facebook Survives Motion To Dismiss